• 60只蚊子寫作文小學生作文初中作文高中作文

    做歷史老師的三個階段

    時間:2019-03-28 10:07:02 | 作者:張建峰

    一次,一位剛剛擔任歷史課的老師,問了我一句:歷史課應該怎么上啊?我竟然不假思索的說:第一個境界是劃一劃,背一背;第二個境界就是拓展;第三個境界是整合。

    在回答完以后,我覺得又太倉促了。又仔細想了想,應該說是三個臺階,更為恰當。

    原先,很多人認為,教歷史就是讓學生看書本,劃一劃,讀一讀,背一背,把該背誦的讓學生背過,就算上完一節課了。其實,這只是初級的,應付性的完成教學任務。但對學生的總體發展來說,是極為不利的。首先是泯滅了學生對歷史學習的興趣,歷史只是本來是豐富多彩的,絢麗多姿的,在老師機械性的劃、讀、背中漸漸迷失了學習的興趣。學生學習歷史僅僅是迫于教師的威嚴,住家喪失了學習歷史的主動性和積極性。歷史,怎么能這樣學?這應該不是學生們所期望的歷史課堂。但在先前,大部分的課堂就是這樣的情況。

    隨著新課改的推進,我的歷史課本變得越來越薄了,對一些歷史事件的前因后果介紹的不甚明確,僅對課本上的知識進行講解,很難讓學生知道前因后果。而每個歷史事件的發展都有其深刻原因的,課本上所出現的孤立的,稍顯零散的歷史事件,是應該需要教師做一些必要的補充。讓學生明白,每個歷史事件的發展都有其原因,很多的歷史事件其實是相互聯系的。特別在補充、介紹歷史事件的前因時,很多的學生都喜歡聽。比如,在學習甲午中日戰爭這一課時,就加上了,日本和中國一樣面臨著淪為半殖民地半封建國家的命運,但是通過改革走上了資本主義道路,繼而,走上了對外侵略擴張的道路。在介紹失敗的原因是,可以補充上當時的日本天皇為了建造軍艦,每天只吃一頓飯的故事,而慈禧太后為了自己的生日慶祝,竟然挪用了海軍的軍費。兩下一對比,勝敗就會一目了然了。學生們非常喜歡聽這方面的補充內容。當然,補充內容,應該還包括記錄當時事件發展的史料,也就是我們平時所說的歷史材料題中的內容。這,也是考試中經常要考的。特別是材料題的補充,我覺得是十分必要的。一是考試的時候經常地考,二是讓學生能夠從另外一個眼光(或許是歷史評論者的,或許是歷史事件當事人的)來看待歷史。從一種和課本介紹完全不同的角度來看待歷史事件的發展,學生能夠明白的更加的透徹。

    在學習新課或復習階段,還經常遇到需要整合知識的情況。例如,在學習一節課的時候,有時會將前后內容整合起來。(這種情況在優質課評選中,經常出現)有時會將前后內容串聯親愛。例如:明朝八股取士的學習中,很多的老師就會聯系原先學過的科舉制的誕生。這就是整合的一個范例。當然,用的最多的還是我們初三歷史的復習過程中。一個專題,一個專題的復習,就是極其典型的整合情況。而且,這也是考試中經常考的地方,現在的考試,特別是后面的材料題,已經不會單純的考一課的知識點,而是整合好幾課的內容來考,甚至中國史、世界史的內容穿插起來考。

    這三個階段,應該是遞進的,對初教者來說,經歷第一階段是正常的,但時間要短;第二、第三階段需要經常交叉使用。現階段來說,單純的講授課本知識的已經不能滿足學生的學習需求,不能適應時代發展的需求,需要我們老師認真備好每一節課,讓歷史課成為學生愿意學習的一門課。

    本文地址:做歷史老師的三個階段——集體教研發言稿http://zuowen8.118v.cn/a/16896.html
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